Características de las intervenciones realizadas con adolescentes en condición de sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión integrativa

Palabras clave: Adolescente, Sobrepeso, Obesidad Pediátrica, Estudios Controlados Antes y Después, Estilo de Vida Saludable.

Resumen

Introducción: Dado que el sobrepeso y la obesidad en la población adolescente van en aumento, es necesario identificar las intervenciones para la prevención y manejo de estas condiciones en el grupo de jóvenes. Objetivo: Presentar la evidencia encontrada, en relación con las características de las intervenciones publicadas en revistas científicas indexadas, sobre la prevención y manejo del sobrepeso y de la obesidad, respecto de la nutrición y la actividad física, para ser utilizada en la toma de decisiones, en cuanto a políticas y programas de promoción y prevención de esta condición de salud. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó la revisión sistemática de estudios cualitativos y cuantitativos (desde descriptivos hasta experimentales, que incluyeran tanto revisiones sistemáticas como meta-análisis), publicados en el período comprendido entre 2005 y 2017, a través de las bases de datos PubMed y ScienceDirect, las bibliotecas virtuales Ovid y SciELO, y el compendio de revisiones Cochrane. Resultados: Existe gran variedad en diseño e implementación de las intervenciones, en cuanto a componentes, teorías, escenarios, evaluación de los efectos, dosis, tiempo y seguimiento, que tienen efecto en los hábitos nutricionales, en la actividad física, en la autoeficacia y en el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de la población estudiada. Discusión: La efectividad de las intervenciones varía, dependiendo de los componentes y de la fidelidad en la aplicación de la misma, lo cual debe revisarse a la luz de los mejores efectos encontrados. Conclusiones: 47 estudios cumplieron los requisitos de inclusión. Las intervenciones se robustecen con el uso de una teoría que direccione y fundamente los hallazgos que permitan dar mayores y mejores resultados. Los componentes de las intervenciones incluyen: duración, dosis, intensidad de la intervención, respuesta y seguimiento. Los adolescentes prefieren metodologías participativas e interactivas; sin embargo, aún no existe una intervención concreta y claramente definida que pueda ser estandarizada para enfrentar este problema de salud.

Como citar este artículo: Bonilla CP, Díaz LP. Características de las intervenciones realizadas con adolescentes en condición de sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión integrativa. Rev Cuid. 2019; 10(3): e681. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v10i3.681

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Biografía del autor/a

Claudia Patricia Bonilla Ibañez, Universidad del Tolima

Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia.

Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

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Publicado
2019-09-13
Cómo citar
Bonilla Ibañez, C. P., & Díaz Heredia, L. P. (2019). Características de las intervenciones realizadas con adolescentes en condición de sobrepeso y obesidad: una revisión integrativa. Revista Cuidarte, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v10i3.681
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